Carnuntum

   Perhaps the most striking and important Roman archaeological site in Austria, Carnuntum lies roughly 80 kilometers southeast of Vienna. The name may be of Celtic origin. Established by the Romans in 15 CE, it was initially used to quarter a military legion of 6,000 infantry and a cavalry of 120. Lying on both east–west and north–south trade routes of the late Roman Empire, the settlement was raised from municipium to colonia, the highest rank that the Romans conferred upon provincial cities. It would become the administrative seat for the Roman governor who supervised Upper Pannonia, roughly eastern and southeastern Austria today. At its peak, Carnuntum had about 50,000 inhabitants, who had at their disposal such amenities as paved roads, covered sewers, a hospital, thermal baths, cultic temples, and, uncovered in 1976, a water system from the second or third century that was still functional. Not far away there was an amphitheater that accommodated 13,000 spectators for animal baiting and gladiatorial contests. Also in the neighborhood is the striking Heathen Gate (Heidentor), a freestanding, and much-eroded stone arch; its purpose—possibly ceremonial, possibly memorial—has yet to be clarified.
   Carnuntum was progressively destroyed by marauding Germanic tribes after 395, but the excavated layout is remarkably well-preserved. The oldest archaeological artifacts, today displayed in a small museum within the compound, date from the first century of the common era. The Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121–180) wrote part of his Meditations during a stay in the fortress.

Historical dictionary of Austria. . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Carnuntum — (Καρνοιις in Ptolemy) was an important Roman army camp in what is now Austria. It belonged originally to Noricum province, but after the 1st century was part of Pannonia. Its remains are on the main road halfway between Vienna and Bratislava, on… …   Wikipedia

  • Carnuntum — (a. Geogr.), alte celtische Stadt an dem Danubius in Oberpannonien, wurde im Jahre 9 n. Chr. römisch mit dem Rang einer Municipalstadt, nach Andern Colonie, mit Waffenfabrik; hier lag die Donauflotte u. eine römische Legion, Severus u. Licinius… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Carnúntum — Carnúntum, alte kelt. Stadt in Pannonien, an der Donau, ein für den Handel mit Germanien und militärisch höchst wichtig gelegener Ort, das gewöhnliche Winterquartier der römischen Truppen und Station der Donauflottille. Von hier aus unternahm… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Carnúntum — Carnúntum, norischer (kelt.) Ort und ehemal. röm. Festung in Pannonien, r. von der Donau. Ruinen zu Deutsch Altenburg mit Museum. – Vgl. Kubitschek und Frankfurter (5. Aufl. 1904) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Carnuntum — 48° 06′ 58″ N 16° 51′ 31″ E / 48.1161, 16.8586 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Carnuntum — Carnụntum,   die stärkste römische Festung an der pannonischen Donaugrenze zwischen Deutsch Altenburg und Petronell Carnuntum in Niederösterreich. Das 15 n. Chr. errichtete Legionslager, von Kaiser Claudius ausgebaut, beherrschte den Übergang… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Carnuntum — Ancient town, Roman empire. Located in northern Pannonia on the Danube River, it was an important Roman post from the time of Augustus. It was used as a base by Marcus Aurelius in his campaign against the Marcommani (AD 171–73); there he wrote… …   Universalium

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